Products

I General introduction to the MVNA-8-350 vector network analyzer

MVNA-8-350 is a vector network analyzer (VNA), an instrument which measures the complex, or vector, impedance (a real and an imaginary part of the impedance or an amplitude and a phase of the microwaves) in the millimeter and sub-millimeter frequency domain. It covers the frequency range from 8 GHz up to 1 THz.

I.1 An original system

Vector Network Analyzer includes a tunable microwave source and a detector, frequency stabilization unit, data acquisition and data processing system. In order to obtain the complete response function of Device Under Test (DUT) inserted into the microwave signal path, between the source and the detector, the detection system must provide both, the amplitude and the phase of the transmitted or reflected signal. Such vector measurements have been done already for many years, using an interferometer arrangement. The microwave signal is there split into two paths. The first, signal path includes the DUT, and the second, reference path, provides the wave which interferes with the signal from the DUT in the detector. Such dual path configuration, although widely used in the optical range of the spectrum, is often not practical in microwaves, in particular due to problems with standing waves. The new design of the MVNA-8-350 vector analyzer, developed by AB MILLIMETRE (Patent CNRS-AB MILLIMETRE), avoids this dual path configuration. Instead, it provides a direct way to perform vector measurements with a single path microwave channel. In the MVNA signal path, the measured millimeter wave signal, which reaches the detector head, is down converted in a Schottky diode harmonic mixer to much lower frequency. Then, the down converted signal is further processed in the heterodyne vector receiver which uses an original, very simple and effective internal reference channel. Receiver frequency tuning is achieved with an internal synthesizer. Although the frequency of the MVNA signal is usually not synthesized, an external 8-18 GHz source locking frequency counter (recommended) connected to MVNA allows one to synthesize each millimeter and submillimeter frequency with desired accuracy. Moreover, for a fast synthesized sweep one can use an external 2.67-6.5 GHz synthesizer attached to MVNA via FASA (FAst Synthesizer Association) extension.

I.2 MVNA-8-350 evolution

Available from November 1994, a dual channel receiver introduced the possibility to detect two signals at the same time, and, from April 1995, a complete 4-S parameter circuit characterization without dismounting the DUT is available. From June 1996, the receiver response time was reduced by a factor of 20, allowing broad frequency sweeps in a few seconds. In November 1996, AB Millimetre introduced a new capability of MVNA which allows the system to work with a single pair of millimeter heads at two different frequencies at the same time. Such a set-up is particularly useful in time critical applications. For example, in experiments in high magnetic fields dual frequency measurements and more reliable (by comparison) acquisition saves precious experimental time and provides more data. In December 1996 the Company developed the capability of the system which allows to attach external microwave and submillimeter sources to the MVNA (therefore, also to detect their signal with vector capability) without need for an external stabilization. This is called FESA extension (Free External Source Association). In June 1997, the association with Gunn diode oscillators feeding multi-harmonic multipliers was extended to widely tunable Gunns. In such a configuration the high frequency domain (above 140 GHz) can be continuously covered with a minimum of extensions: a single extension ESA-1-FC (FC is for Full Coverage) to ca 600 GHz, the extensions ESA-1-FC and ESA-2-FC to ca 1000 GHz. Our extensions, ESA-1 (for the source) and ESA-2 (for the detector) use, as local oscillators, similar Gunns, tuned to very close frequencies. In July 2000, AB Millimetre has developed a new capability, which allows one to attach our ESA-2 extension into the detection system based on the frequency multiplication chain that the customer may already have. In that multiplication chain, the Gunn oscillator frequency can be different from the Gunn frequency of our ESA-2 extension. Due to the improved efficiency of existing, and yet to come, state-of-the-art multiplication chains, the upper frequency limit of our MVNA could be pushed up to ca. 2 THz. In September 2000, the Company has developed the possibility to detect simultaneously, by the same ESA-2 extension, signals from two different multiplication chains working at different submillimeter frequencies. In summer 2006, the ESA (External Source Association) extensions have been completely redesigned and improved into ASA (Automatic Source Association). This technical breakthrough was achieved by replacing, as W-band millimetre source, the 71-111 GHz mechanically tunable Gunn oscillators by an active multiplier chain composed from the sextupler cascaded with an equivalent medium power WR-10 waveguide amplifier delivering 62-112 GHz. ASA extension is electronically tuned over the full frequency range. As a result, the experiments involving ASA extensions require neither tedious mechanical tuning of Gunns nor complicated adjustment of the PLL control. Moreover, at any central frequency chosen between 142 and 1000 GHz, the ASA extension is particulary useful for reasonably wide frequency sweep spans, over 9 GHz, typically 20 GHz,instead of at most a few GHz available with the former ESA extension.
In 2009, the development of high-efficiency broad band Schottky devices opened the availability of Full Broadband FB sources and detectors for the bands 130-224 GHz, 220-336 GHz, and 660-1000 GHz.
The logical and operational control of the analyzer is done with a PC computer. The AB Millimetre software provides also many tools for data storage and analysis. These include Fourier Transform FT analysis, data fitting, averaging and smoothing. For example, the FT capability allows one to observe the time domain response of DUT after each frequency sweep, and it also provides very efficient tool for testing of microwave propagation in experimental benches. Complex Lorentzian fitting of resonances (circles in the complex response polar plane) brings, without ambiguity, relevant parameters for resonance cavities, and other resonances, even when the resonant signal is convoluted with a non resonant background. Split resonance (double Lorentzians) can be also resolved. Collected data can be further analyzed by fitting of built-in models, which include Fabry-Perot resonances, attenuated resonances, etc., or with externally supplied programs, including most popular data analysis software and the Labview package ("Labview" is a registered trade mark of National Instruments ).

I.3 MVNA-8-350 alone, or with ASA extensions

The Millimeter Vector Network Analyzer model MVNA-8-350 which is all solid state electronics, provides a continuous frequency coverage from 8 GHz to 336 GHz and also 660-1000 GHz without any extension. Its internal tunable sources work in the centimeter domain, from 8.0 to 18.8 GHz. These sources can be used also directly, via their SMA coax connectors available at the front panel of the instrument. Millimeter-submillimeter waves are generated by frequency multiplication, and are detected by harmonic mixing. These multiplication-detection functions are performed in the millimeter heads connected to the analyzer main panel with flexible coax cables. Each millimeter head contains a Schottky barrier diode attached across a waveguide. Seven waveguide standards (WR-42, WR-22, WR-15, WR-10, WR-6.5, WR-5.1, and WR-3.4), with the corresponding six pairs of millimeter heads, deliver almost continuous frequency coverage from 16 GHz (our possible lower limit for WR-42) to 336 GHz. Without the WR-28 standard (Ka-Band), there is a small gap between 26.5 GHz (upper limit of WR-42 heads) and 29 GHz (our possible lower limit for WR-22 heads). Each of the millimeter bands below 336 GHz can be covered in a single computer-controlled frequency sweep, without need for an additional mechanical tuning. This is also the case for the 660-1000 GHz band WR-1.2 heads. On the other hand, the ASA extensions do include mechanically tunable Schottky devices and configurable high pass filters which allow one to optimize the output power and tunability range of the system at any particular frequency between 140 and 1000 GHz. Then, the computer driven frequency sweep span exceeds 9 GHz.

II MVNA-8-350 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

II.1 MVNA-8-350 Basic Configuration and recommended extra equipment

The basic MVNA-8-350 configuration consists of: All the above items are delivered, with all necessary cables, by AB MILLIMETRE under the name "MVNA-8-350", see   Fig. 1. A very much recommended extra equipment is the 8-20 GHz source locking counter. The MVNA can thus be automatically phase locked through, for example, the GPIB link. Such a configuration allows for synthesized frequency operation up to 1000 GHz, which is useful, for instance, when characterizing high-Q resonance (Q>30,000) or antennas with a large distance between the source and the detector.

II.2 MVNA-8-350 Flat Broadband Millimeter Heads

The AB MILLIMETRE Millimeter Heads, which are small and lightweight, are linked to the Analyzer through flexible coax cables, with a standard length of 1m each. The cable length can be extended up to 10m. The heads include, at the minimum, a Harmonic Generator HG (the source), and a Harmonic Mixer HM (the detector). In order to minimize the standing waves effects, each millimeter wave port must be equipped with a full band isolator (if available) or a fixed attenuator (above 220 GHz). The millimeter wave ports must be chosen in the millimeter bands of interest, namely K (18-26.5 GHz, waveguide WR-42), Ka (26.5-40 GHz, WR-28), Q (33-50 GHz, WR-22), U (40-60 GHz, WR-19), V (50-75 GHz, WR-15), W (75-110 GHz, WR-10), D (110-170 GHz, WR-6), G (140-220 GHz, WR-5.1), WR-3.4 (220-330 GHz), WR-1.2 (660-1000 GHz). The millimeter ports in bands K, Ka, Q, U, V, W, D, G, WR-3.4, and WR-1.2 are called FB (Flat Broadband), see  Fig. 2,   Fig. 3, and   Fig. 4. In all these bands no mechanical tuning is needed and one can perform full frequency range electronically-driven sweeps within given band.

II.3 Different models of MVNA-8-350

The MVNA Central Unit is made from two halves and each half exists in several versions. The different models of MVNA-8-350 are due to various combinations of the two halves (upper and lower).

II.3.1 MVNA-8-350-1

Attaching MP-8-350-1 to VR-8-350-1, one obtains the simplest Analyzer, MVNA-8-350-1  (Fig. 8), which performs a single measurement at a time. Let us consider a transmission measurement across a DUT. After calibration, in a first sweep, of direct transmission (HG directly connected to HM), the DUT is introduced between HG and HM. The second sweep gives the DUT parameter S21. Similarly S11 is measured with a directional coupler in the reflection geometry, after a calibration performed on a short. The more sophisticated reflection calibration is possible with a few additional components: fixed short, tunable short, and matched load.

II.3.2 MVNA-8-350-2

The lower part of the Central Unit model MP-8-350-2 has a single connector for a HG cable, and two HM connectors (Fig. 9). Two Harmonic Mixers can work simultaneously, for instance HM2 detecting transmission through the DUT, and HM1, at port 3 of a directional coupler, detecting reflection from the DUT (Fig. 10). The Vector Receiver will naturally be the dual channel model VR-8-350-2. The assembly MP-8-350-2 + VR-8-350-2 is labeled as Analyzer model MVNA-8-350-2 (Fig. 11).
For transmission-reflection measurements, calibrations can be made in two sweeps: firstly, HG contacting HM2 across the directional coupler, and then HM1 detecting total reflection from a short placed at the coupler output. Again, the more accurate reflection calibration is obtained in five, or seven sweeps with: a fixed short FS, a tunable short TS (in 3 positions), and a matched, or tunable load TL (in 1 or 3 positions) (Fig. 12). After connecting the DUT between the coupler and HM2, S21 and S11 are measured simultaneously.

II.3.3 MVNA-8-350-4 and 4S parameters

The microwave part MP-8-350-4 is designed for the 4S-Parameter measurements. It includes two connectors for the two detectors HM like in MP-8-350-2, and also two connectors for the two sources HG, which are powered alternatively  (Fig. 13). Naturally, for such measurements the Vector Receiver must be the dual channel version, VR-8-350-2. The assembly of VR-8-350-2 and MP-8-350-4 is the 4-S Parameter Analyzer MVNA-8-350-4 (Fig. 14). Thus the 4-S Parameters are obtained in two sweeps, which are automatically driven, without dismounting the DUT placed between two directional couplers.
The full calibration of empty system usually requires eight sweeps, using shorts, a through, a sliding short (3 positions) and a sliding matched load (3 positions). However, in some cases the calibration can also be done in a simpler way, in 3 sweeps only.

II.3.4 MVNA-8-350-1-2

It is possible to attach a dual channel receiver VR-8-350-2, to a single-HM microwave part MP-8-350-1, creating in that way a very flexible measuring system, a "microwave panoramic receiver" with which one can extract two separate signals from the single detector HM (or extension ASA-2).
The two detecting channels can be tuned to two different harmonics of the same HG or ASA-1 microwave source. It provides a possibility of simultaneous dual frequency measurements, like 52.5 and 70 GHz, 400 and 500 GHz, or a similar arrangement. The assembly of MP-8-350-1 (single detector Microwave Part) and VR-8-350-2 (dual channel Vector Receiver) is called MVNA-8-350-1-2, see Fig. 15. That configuration is highly recommended for some research applications, in particular, for spectroscopy and magneto-spectroscopy since the dual frequency technique allows one to save a lot of expensive measuring time.

II.4 Software and interfacing.

The installed sophisticated software offers many possibilities for signal storage, processing, visualization, etc. This includes the Fourier Transform analysis, and the line shape fitting of resonance. The system can also control external devices through the GPIB interface. It provides also and analog, and digital input/output channels, together with a direct access to the microwave receiver phase and amplitude signals. The installed software can drive one or two stepper motors, it can also record a variable voltage corresponding for instance to an independent variable of the experiment.One can make the sweep of frequency, time, angle, or magnetic field. Such a sweep can also be controlled by an external voltage supplied to the system. These possibilities are used for example, for antennas measurements, and for spectroscopy with magnetic fields. Last but not least the software of MVNA allows easy interfacing with standard experiment-control packages, including National Instruments Labview and compatible programs.

III Operational techniques and the dynamic range

III.1 The 8-336 GHz and 660-1000 GHz frequency ranges

The range where the analyzer signal frequency is swept in a continuous way, without extensions, is extending from 8 GHz to 336 GHz, and from 660 to 1000 GHz. The ratio of the total power of the signal radiated by the source to the smallest amount of power which can be detected (at the noise level, at the measurement rate of 20 points/sec), expressed in logarithmic units, is called the Dynamic Range (DR). That number also shows the maximum attenuation introduced by the DUT which can be measured with the MVNA. See Flat Broadband FB heads typical DR in  Fig. 16 traces a, b, c, d, e1, f, h1.

III.2 MVNA heads based on a medium-power extended W-band source

III.2.1 Sources

III.2.1.1 62-112 GHz source
We have developed a new sextupler which covers broader frequency range (62-112 GHz) than the previous one (limited to W-band = 75-110 GHz) and which also delivers more power, in the 10-40 mW range. It is called HG-W-FB-MP (Full Band, Medium Power). See its photograph  Fig. 17. The signal in the frequency range 62-112 GHz can be detected by the ordinary detector HM-W-FB with a dynamic range exceeding 120 dB.
III.2.1.2 130-224, 220-336, 660-1000 GHz sources
The HG-W-FB-MP can also drive dedicated frequency multipliers: the doubler DOU-wr5.1 which covers frequency range 130-224 GHz with output power in the range 0.5 5 mW, and the tripler TRI-wr3.4 which covers the 220-336 GHz interval with output power in the range 0.1-1.2 mW. The device composed of HG-W-FB-MP and DOU-wr5.1 is offered as the source HG-wr5.1-FB, see  Fig. 18 and the device composed of HG-W-FB-MP and TRI-wr3.4 is offered as the source HG-wr3.4-FB, see  Fig. 19. Cascading a second tripler to the HG-wr3.4-FB output one obtains a signal source covering the frequency range 660-1000 GHz. Such source is offered under the name HG-wr1.2-FB with WR-1.2 waveguide output or HG-wr1.2-FB-DH with built in Diagonal Horn output, see  Fig. 20. That source delivers sub-terahertz microwave radiation with the power typically in the range of 1-10 microwatts.
III.2.1.3 140-1000 GHz source
All dedicated Full-Band "FB" frequency multipliers (with a multiplying factor M = 2, 3 or 9 from the W-band LO), as described above, can be swept over the full band without any adjustment. In the mechanically tunable extensions working over several harmonics, called ASA (formerly named ESA), the local oscillator is also HG-W-FB-MP (instead of the former, mechanically tuned, Gunn). After source optimization, the typical, electronically-controlled frequency scan can be extended over approximatelly 10-20 GHz range around selected frequency.  Fig. 21 (traces c, e, f and h) summarizes our sources output power level obtained by multiplication of the HG-W-FB-MP for all multiplication factors (including M=1).

III.2.2 Detectors

AB Millimetre developed new, extremely sensitive detectors, which are very simple in use since they do not require separate bias.
III.2.2.1 130-224 GHz detection (HM-wr5.1)
The tunable detector HM-wr5.1,  Fig. 22, is typically used to detect signal generated by the HG-wr5.1-FB (power delivered by HG-wr5.1-FB is shown at  Fig. 21 trace e, with the dynamic range approaching 130 dB over 130-224 GHz see  Fig. 16 trace e2. The dynamic range of such a set-up exceeds by more than 30 dB over most of the spectral range, that of an earlier, non-tunable, HM-D-FB detector (as shown in  Fig. 16 trace e1). That gain is particularily advantageous for experiments performed at fixed frequencies, like antenna measurements and spectroscopy in the magnetic field. On the other hand, the non-tunable detector HM-D-FB provides flatter spectral response. That might be advantageous for full-band sweep applications, like characterization of materials in quasi-optical benches.
III.2.2.2 220-336 GHz and above, up to 1000 GHz detection (HM-wr3.4)
The sub-terahertz detector assembly HM-wr4.3 is shown in  Fig. 23. That detector was designed to work together with the source HG-wr3.4-FB. The measured dynamic range of such a set-up is close to 120 dB for most of the frequency range of 220-336 GHz ( Fig. 16 trace f). That dynamic range can be additionally optimized by mechanical tuning of the detector. The typical output power emitted by HG-wr3.4-FB is shown in  Fig. 21 trace f. Changing of the frequency anywhere within 220-336 GHz range requires only a single mechanical tuning optimization, of HM-wr3.4. However, for these applications where such a mechanical tuning is not possible, for instance with a detector at a remote distance from the user, or in a full-band sweep, it is possible to modify the detector for tuningless work. In order to do that it is sufficient to remove the tuning short (shown in the right side of  Fig. 23), and such modified HM-wr4.3, together with HG-wr3.4-FB source, still provides rather uniform dynamic range, ca 120 dB over the spectral range 220-336 GHz, as shown in  Fig. 16 trace f. The power level of microwaves generated by HG-wr1.2-FB above 660 GHz (see  Fig. 21, trace h) is lower than that at smaller frequencies although it is adequate for several, even most demanding applications. In particular, that power level is sufficient to obtain, with the detector the HM-wr3.4, a typical dynamic range of 50 dB ( Fig. 16, trace h3).
III.2.2.3. 660-1000 GHz HM-wr1.2-FB detector
See the picture in  Fig. 24 of this non-tunable, sensitive, detector, giving DR ca 80 dB when detecting HG-wr1.2-FB (  Fig. 16 trace h1). To be much preferred to the ASA-2-FC tunable detection (see below) in the 660-1000 GHz interval.
III.2.2.4 250-1000 GHz detection - the extension ASA-2-FC
For applications requiring the highest possible sensitivity in the 336-660 GHz domain, AB Millimetre provides the tunable extension ASA-2-FC detection unit ( Fig. 25). It covers spectral range from its input waveguide frequency cutoff 250 GHz up to above one terahertz. Like the corresponding source ASA-1-FC, this detector requires mechanical tuning, therefore the sweep scans are typically limited to frequency interval of 20 GHz. ASA-2-FC uses sextupler HG-W-FB with the output signal power of 1-4 mW as a local oscillator.  Fig. 16 trace g1 is for detection of ASA-1-FC, and trace h2 is for detection of HG-wr1.2-FB.

III.3 Microwave power control over a range of at least 50 dB

Rotary-vane calibrated 0-60 dB attenuator K can be attached at the HG-W-FB-MP output. At the fundamental frequency (within the W band) its calibration is reliable in the 0-50 dB attenuation range. The power can be also controlled after frequency multiplication for sources HG-wr5.1-FB, HG-wr3.4-FB and ASA-1-FC-FB with the attenuator K inserted between the HG-W-FB-MP and the cascaded Multiplier. However, due to the nonlinear characteristic of the multiplier, the output power will decrease much faster than that shown by the attenuator scale, and the effective range of the adjustment will increase (to more than 130 dB at M=3, at the maximum attenuation position). The MVNA analyzer itself provides a precise calibration of the relative output power versus attenuator K position.

IV Accessory components

IV.1 Isolators

At operations below 224 GHz a full waveguide band Faraday isolator must be attached to each millimeter head in order to reduce the standing waves. It is difficult to find standard isolators available above 220 GHz (WR-5.1). If one encounters problems with standing waves working at higher frequencies, the attenuators inserted into the microwave or optical path should help to diminish their effect. That will, however, also reduce the dynamic range of the detector. Therefore, a trade off must be analyzed and tested for each particular application. One should also notice that isolators are sensitive to stray magnetic fields and must not be placed in a field exceeding a few Gauss. (For example, big superconducting magnets may generate stray field of that strength in the radius of a few meters.).

IV.2 Filters

The use of the extensions ASA-1-FC and ASA-2-FC requires high-pass filters which are supplied by AB MILLIMETRE  (Fig. 26).

IV.3 Attenuators

Fixed value attenuators (40 dB in the K-Ka bands, 30 dB in the Q-V bands, 20 dB in the W band, 6 dB in the D band, etc.) are very useful for direct signal calibration, and also to measure low loss devices, since they damp the standing waves. An appropriate attenuator is supplied for free with each HG head, as shown in the  Fig. 2, between the isolators.

IV.4 Directional couplers

Directional couplers are necessary for reflection measurements, and they are also very useful for the characterization of waveguide structures (sample holders, diplexers, light pipes, etc.). There are separate couplers for each frequency range, corresponding to waveguide standard sizes, up to 336 GHz (WR-3.4). See  Fig. 27 as an example.

IV.5 Feed horns, conical transitions

If one chooses the free space, or quasi optical mode of propagation, one must couple the radiation from the millimeter heads outputs, which are waveguides, to the free space with horn antennas creating Gaussian beams, typically with about 10 half angle aperture (RF field dropping by 1/e), and side lobes below -20 dBc. AB Millimetre offers a broad range of horn antennas, including scalar (corrugated), Potter, and diagonal (DH) horns for frequencies up to 1000 GHz  Fig. 28,  Fig. 29,  Fig. 30,  Fig. 31.
In case one chooses the oversized guide, or light pipe propagation, one must use low loss, low standing wave ratio, pyramidal-conical transitions between waveguides and the light pipe, Fig. 32. The cone half angle is 3 or below, and the length of each transition is around 90 mm.

IV.6 Extension cables

Standard microwave (8 - 18 GHz) SMA connecting cables supplied with the Analyzer are 1m long. Some low temperature experiments and antenna characterization may require longer cables. For these purposes we offer extension cables up to 10 m long. Cables up to 25 m can also be used with 8-18 GHz amplifiers. One should notice that, in order to achieve a good phase stability, it is recommended that the sum of the effective length of the cable connecting the Analyzer to the source HG plus the length of the microwave path from the source to the detector should be equal to the length of the cable connecting the detector HM to the Analyzer. The corresponding extra length of coax cable connecting on the HM side should be calculated taking into account that the free space propagation length is 1.2 m per 1 m of the cable.

V REFERENCES

Reprints are available upon request from AB MILLIMETRE.
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  2. "Free Space Vector Transmission-Reflection from 18 GHz to 760 GHz", P. Goy, M. Gross, 24th European Microwave Conference, 5-8 September 1994, Cannes, France.
  3. "Quasi-optics vector transmission-reflection from 18 to 760 GHz", P. Goy, M. Gross, Workshop on low-noise quasi-optics, September 12-13 1994, Bonn, Germany.
  4. "Probing the microwave conductivity of low dimensional organic conductors in high magnetic fields", S. Hill, P.S. Sandhu, C.Buhler, S. Uji, J.S. Brooks, L. Seger, M. Boonman, A. Wittlin, J.A.A.J. Perenboom, P.Goy, R. Kato, H. Sawa and S. Aonuma in Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves III, Mohammed N. Afsar, Editor, Proc. SPIE 2842, pp 296-306 (1996).
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  19. "Dielectric characterization in the millimeter and submillimeter range by vector measurements in quasi-optical structures", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, M. Gross, B.Thomas, A. Maestrini, 17eme Colloque International Optique Herzienne et Dielectriques, OHD 2003, Sept. 3-5, Calais, France.
  20. "Continuous wave vector measurements from 8 GHz to the THz and beyond", P. Goy, M. Gross, S. Caroopen, IRMMW 2003, 28 International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Otsu Shiga, Sept. 29 - Oct. 2, 2003, Japan.
  21. "High field high frequency EPR techniques and their applications to single molecule magnets", R.S. Edwards, S. Hill, P. Goy, R. Wylde and S. Takahashi, Physica B 346-347, 211-215 (2004).
  22. "S11 characterization of a defective-, then repaired-, scalar horn for W-band", P. Goy, internal report, Jan. 16, 2005.
  23. "Vector characterization of millimeter-submillimeter antennas with a single setup in the 8-1000 GHz interval", P. Goy, S. Caroopen, M. Gross, ICAT 2005, International Conference on Antenna Technologies, Feb. 23-24, 2005, Ahmedabad, India.
  24. "Large area W-band quasi-optical Faraday rotators for imaging applications", R.I. Hunter, D.A. Robertson, P. Goy, G.M. Smith, IRMMW2005/THz2005, The Joint 30th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves & 13th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, Sept. 19-23, 2005, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA.
  25. "Multiple frequency submillimeter-wave heterodyne imaging using an AB Millimetre MVNA", P.H. Siegel, R.J. Dengler, T. Tsai, P. Goy, H. Javadi, IRMMW 2005/THz 2005, The Joint 30th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves & 13th International Conference on Terahertz Electronics, Sept. 19-23, 2005, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA.
  26. "Comparison between two scalar horns, designed for 183 GHz, by the reflection method in D-band (110-170 GHz)", P. Goy, internal report AB Millimetre, Jan. 22, 2007.
  27. "Vector measurements of cavity and magnetic resonances", P. Goy, internal report AB Millimetre, Jan. 22, 2007.
  28. "Anisotropic exchange in tetranuclear CoII complex", J. Liu, S. Datta, E.Bolin, J. Lawrence, C.C. Beedle, E-C. Yang, P. Goy, D.N. Hendrickson and Steven Hill, Polyhedron 28, 1922-1926 (2009).

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